In Muehler v. Mena, No. 03-1423 (March 22, 2005), the Supreme Court held that the detention in handcuffs of an occupant of premises which were being search for weapons and evidence of gang membership did not violate the Fourth Amendment and therefore could not give rise to a suit under 42 U.S.C. § 1983.
The Court noted that under Michigan v. Summers, police has the authority to detain occupants of premises while a proper search is being conducted. The use of force in the form of handcuffs to detain Mena was reasonable here because the governmental interest in minimizing the risk of harm to both officers and occupants, at its maximum when a warrant authorizes a search for weapons and a wanted gang member resides on the premises, outweighs the marginal intrusion.
The Court also found no Fourth Amendment violation in the questioning of Mesa about her immigration status. Mere police questioning does not constitute a "seizure."
The Court remanded the case for consideration of Mesa’s argument that the length of her detention violated the Fourth Amendment.
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